We immediately point out that prevention does not mean the total lack of risk of injury, but rather a lower incidence thereof.
The main causes of the onset of joint / muscular trauma are:
- articular mobility deficit
- incorrect posture (reconnect to point1)
- lack of proper technique in the execution of the technical gesture
- poor or missed warm up
- under-activated or weak synergistic muscle (linked to steps 1 and 2)
The problem is almost never in the joint or muscle involved, it is usually derived from compensation due to a movement deficit (it may be, but is less likely).
What are the steps to follow for proper prevention?
there are a myriad of systems to perform a functional evaluation, from computerised to analytic, from simple to complex and much more ... I add that every sports federation, from basket to rugby, to ping pong, has its own set of figures to evaluate the functionality of the individual in relation to the activity he / she must practice.
A very effective, simple, analytical system, generally "fast" and above all supported by scientific research and the Functional Movement Screen (FMS).
This system has been developed (and is still being developed, or better updated) from Gray Cook and Lee Burton as a screening system for potential injuries for both athletes and non-athletes.
Warm up and preparation for movement
What is movement? It is the combined act of posture and control in the presence of active and reactive motor schemes of manipulation, and thus it represents the point where controlled mobility and dynamic stability combine with conditional capacities such as strength, speed and resistance, cf. Michael Boyle.
Where do you need to start off to try to prevent injury?
Diaphragmatic activation (breathing exercise)
Often because of incorrect attitudes during daily life, we develop incorrect posture, for example, those who work all day on the pc or nevertheless in position, he or she often takes an accentuated cypotic posture and pain in the lumbar region, this type of posture can lead in most cases to the deactivation of the diaphragm leads to chest and non-abdominal breathing (physiologically and functionally correct respiration) which in turn leads to a hypertony of the front chest muscles (mostly pectoral, which itself is predisposed to shortening) and hypotonicity of the back muscles leading to a posture tending to a cypotic posture.
Soft tissue therapy (foam rolling)
Foam rolling is, in simple words, the massager of the "poor". The roller serves to work on areas of higher muscle density called trigger points and through rolling allows for reducing this density and local electrical activity.
If you imagine a muscle as a skein, the trigger points are the tighter knots of the skein and rolling serves to melt these knots, improving regional mobility and allowing for stretching more effectively.
Both static and dynamic, this is the objection: "static stretching is bad, it reduces performance and increases the likelihood of injury ..."; partly yes and in part no, that is, if we do it/have our clients or athletes do it, right away before doing a 100m sprint, we are likely to be less fast than we can expect and we are likely to feel pain in the femoral biceps soon afterwards or in the subsequent days. However, if we use it as a preparation for movement before a dynamic warm-up and dynamic flexibility phase, it can be extremely effective in improving articulation and in motion preparation.
Activating deactivated muscle districts
There are some small muscles that depending on posture and daily activities tend not to perform their function properly and automatically when needed. The most predisposed districts for this deactivation are the ileopsoas and the middle gluteus.
The middle gluteus example: if they do not activate properly, during a squat, the knees, instead of going in line with the foot, tend to go inwards creating an improper thrust and increasing the load and lateral force on the knee joint, this phenomenon it will also lead to an activation of the lumbar region which, without the push of the leg, will seek hypertension in order to lift the load too.
General dynamic heating
It represents the moment when you try to raise the temperature and bring the bpm (beats per minute) in the range of 120-150, here you need to proceed with a series of dynamic and muscular impact exercises increasing from general to specific (specific refers to approaching series in case of training in the gym).
Intelligent muscle strengthening
Working in monopodalic
i.e. having one foot on the ground forces the hip structures, the abductors and rotators to stabilise against the movement both on the sagittal and transversal plane. It is extremely useful to improve core activation. It has a reduced activation of the lumbar region (along with anti-rotation work) it is an excellent remedy / prevention for the usual pain in the lumbar region for those who train at the gym or who have never been followed properly.
It is essential to filling the gap between the lower limbs, which according to studies, if it exceeds 7%, the risk of injury grows exponentially.
Training the core
The aim is to improve the stability of our body on all work planes, avoiding compensation, reducing the incidence of injury to the lumbar region, and improving overall performance; we need to see the core as the base, if it is big and strong above we can build what we like.
Reinforcing the rotator cuff allows us greater stability of the scapulas and of the shoulder joints.
Technical exhaustion and perfect technique
As the execution technique declines, the exercise automatically ceases to be effective with respect to the proposed goal; e.g.: wanting to work on pectoral hypertrophy, if with 70 kg I can do 10 reps, but from the 5th I lose deformation and as I lose the elbow in thrust, it is obvious that the push will no longer be borne by the district concerned but will weigh on the shoulder joint.
Proper nutrition and hydration
Nutrition and hydration are two faces of the same coin and both, if appropriate, can help reduce injuries.
A final comment.
This is just a general smattering on the key concepts to reduce the likelihood of an accident, clearly the recommendations are then expanded and made more specific depending on the sport practiced or the activity carried out daily.