Vitamin B2, also known as riboflavin, is a water-soluble vitamin, naturally present in foods where other B vitamins exist. Riboflavin is stable to heat, oxidation and acid, although it disintegrates in the presence of alkali or light, especially ultraviolet light.
The role of riboflavin is unique because it not only works inside the cell for energy production, but also cleans the cell of any antagonistic elements. It is necessary for cellular respiration because it collaborates with some enzymes in the utilization of cellular oxygen. Like thiamine, it functions as part of a group of enzymes that are involved in the production of energy for the body, using fats, carbohydrates and Protein. Riboflavin is the best ally of the athlete, because it is stored in the muscles and used at the time of physical activity. It is necessary for the maintenance of good eyesight, skin, nails and hair.
One of the most interesting aspects of riboflavin is its protective role, together with an enzyme called glucathione reductase, against free radicals (elements that attack the body in a destructive way). Vitamin B2 also works as an antioxidant that captures and destroys abnormal cells in the body, such as those that cause cancer.
The amount of B2 present in most cybi is so minimal that it is normally quite difficult to get enough without supplementing the diet. Good sources of riboflavin are the liver, tongue and other organs, milk, yogurt, eggs, and brewer's yeast.
Assimilation and storage
The rìboflavin, a water-soluble vitamin, is not stored in the body, and must therefore be taken daily with food or supplements. Riboflavin is easily assimilated through the walls of the small intestine. It is then transported by the blood to the tissues of the body and eliminated in the urine and sweat. The amount eliminated depends on the intake and related need in the tissues and may be accompanied by a loss of body Protein. Small amounts of riboflavin are found in the liver and kidneys, but it is not stored in the muscles in large doses.
Milk, a food that contains riboflavin should not be stored in transparent bottles, as light can destroy the vitamin within hours. Cooking does not destroy the riboflavin.
Dosage and toxicity
According to the National Research Council (USA), the daily requirement of ribotlavin is related to the size of the body, the metabolic rate and the rate of growth. These factors are directly linked to each individual's protein and calorie intake. The recommended daily dose is 1.5 mg for 11 to 14 year old males, 1.8 mg for 15 to 18 year old, 1.7 mg for 19 to 50 year old, and 1.4 mg for 50 year old. on. Per women, on the other hand, the recommended dose is 1.3 mg from 11 to 50 years old and from 50 upwards, 1.2 mg. Pregnant women should add 0.3 mg, women who breastfeed during the first six months need a supplement of 0.5 mg and for the next six months 0.4 mg. Children from 1 to 3 years should take 0.8 mg, from 4 to 6 years 1.0 mg, and from 7 to 10 years 1.2 mg is sufficient. Infants up to six months need 0.4 mg and from six months to one year, 0.5 mg. People who play sports should take 2 to 2.5 mg per day.
There is no known toxicity of riboflavin. However, prolonged intake of high doses of any of the B vitamins, including riboflavin, can lead to large losses of other B vitamins. So it is important to take the complete B complex with any single B vitamins.
Deficiency effects and symptoms
Unlike thiamin, riboflavin is not found in many foods, so the most common cause of a deficiency is an unbalanced diet.
Vitamin deficiency of ribotlavin can result from one or more of the following factors: (1) long-standing poor dietary habits; (2) food preferences; (3) arbitrarily chosen diets to treat symptoms of digestive problems; (4) the prolongation of a restricted diet for the treatment of a disease such as peptic ulcer or diabetes. Deficiency is also common among older people with poor eating habits, people who have had surgery, and people who drink too much alcohol and lose their appetite.
The deficiency of this vitamin occurs mainly on the skin and mucous membrane. The most common symptoms of vitamin B2 deficiency are: cracks and sores in the corners of the mouth, lesions of the lips, red and sore tongue, a sensation of dust and sand inside the eyelids, burning eyes, tired eyes, dilation of the pupil, corneal changes, photophobia. Peeling around the mouth, nose, ears and forehead, vaginal itching, oily skin, eczema on the face and genitals, and baldness are other symptoms of deficiency. Vitamin B2 deficiency can cause certain types of cataracts and can also cause ridge loss. Experimental studies have shown that some forms of cancer can be linked to vitamin B2 deficiency.
Women, especially those who play a sport, and in general all people who perform tiring physical activity, have a greater need for riboflavin. The use of tranquilizers, hypothyroidism and borate intoxication have been associated with riboflavin deficiency. People who consume foods with bisulfite-based preservatives, or who use Lasix or furosemide, digoxin, and antacids may be deficient. People who drink a lot of coffee or tea are also prone to riboflavin deficiency. Per the latter, the recommended dietary dose ranges from 1.5 to 10 mg. Riboflavin deficiency has been found in some male bachelors.
Lack of stamina and vigor, growth retardation, digestive disturbances and poor milk production are the effects of a riboflavin deficiency. Deficiency can also cause hair loss and weight loss. Underweight people who have feelings of tension and depression may need more riboflavin. The results of some studies show that vitamin B12, C and riboflavin deficiency can cause depression. Tremor, asthenia, dizziness, dropsy, and difficulty urinating are all symptoms of deficiency. Riboflavin deficiency often occurs alongside iron deficiency.
Beneficial effects in diseases
Riboflavin plays an important role in the prevention of some visual disturbances. especially cataracts. Undernourished women, at the end of pregnancy often suffer from visual disturbances, burning sensation in the eyes, excessive tearing and vision defects. These conditions can be improved by supplementing the diet with high doses of vitamin B2.
Riboflavin has also given relief to children suffering from eczema. Increased dosages of riboflavin a are required for hyperthyroidism, fevers, stress from wounds and surgery, malabsorption. Alcoholics benefit from taking riboflavin. Riboflavin plays a protective role against cancer and anemia, protects those who practice sports from free radical damage and improves the performance of athletes. Vitamin B12, C, folic acid and riboflavin contained in food can enhance brain function.
Research performed on humans
- B2 (Ribotlavina) e disturbi alla vista.47 patients suffered from a variety of visual disturbances. They were sensitive to light, they suffered from sensations of tension, fatigue or burning in the eyes; their eyes often watered. Six of them had cataracts.
Results. Within 24 hours of administration of riboflavin the symptoms began to disappear and after two days the burning sensation and other ailments disappeared. All the imbalances were gradually cured. When the riboflavin was removed, the symptoms reappeared and again they were cured with administration of riboflavin.
|VITAMIN B2 CAN BE EFFECTIVE IN THE TREATMENT OF THE FOLLOWING DISEASES:|
|Hair / scalp||Baldness|
|Brain / nervous system||Parkinson's disease
lacrimation Night blindness
|Lungs / respiratory system||Influence|
|Blood / circulatory system||Diabetes|